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Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi viroids, prions, nematodes such as parasitic roundworms and pinworms, arthropods such as ticks, mites, fleas, and lice, fungi such as ringworm, and other macroparasites such as tapeworms and other helminths. The diseases are spread directly or indirectly from one person to another. Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases of animals that cause diseases when transmitted to humans. Hosts can fight infections using their immune system. Mammalian hosts react to infections with an innate response, often involving inflammation, followed by an adaptive response. Specific medications used to treat infections include antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, antiprotozoals, and antihelminthics. This session discusses more about infectious diseases.
Gastrointestinal infections are viral, bacterial or parasitic infections that cause gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract involving both the stomach and the small intestine. Gastrointestinal infections can be caused by a large number of microorganisms, include Yersinia enterocolitica. staphylococcus aureus, salmonella and shigella, rotavirus, helicobacter pylori, escherichia coli, clostridium difficile, campylobacter, adenovirus. Symptoms include diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Dehydration is the main danger of gastrointestinal infections, so rehydration is important, but most gastrointestinal infections are self-limited and resolve within a few days. However, in a healthcare setting and in specific populations such as newborns, infants, immunocompromized patients or elderly populations, they are potentially serious. Rapid diagnosis, appropriate treatment and infection control measures are therefore particularly important in these contexts. This session discusses more about gastrointestinal infections.
Microbiology dates back to the times of Aristotle where people used to believe that living organisms are born from non-living organisms. From there, it gradually evolved further with Roger Bacon in 13thcentury calling it a Germ, the agent of disease that infects humans. Van Leuwenhoek, in 1676 observed the very first microbes called “Animalcules”. And in 1878 Sedillot coined the term Microbe. The study of microbes picked up and the field has come to known as microbiology. Microbiology has seen the golden era with major contributions from the great scientists like Redi, Needham, & Spallanzi, Louis Pasteur, Lister, Tyndall, Koch, Petri, Hesse, Jenner, Fleming & Ehrlich. Today, the research, the advanced technologies, innovations in research studies has seen microbiology expand into various sub-fields such as Pathology, Microbiology, Bacteriology, Virology, Parasitology, Mycology, and several other sub-fields. All these sub-fields are inter-dependent and blend into it making the science of microbiology a stronger one where its benefits are reaching people across the world. This session discusses in threadbare about the latest developments, trends and technologies in microbiology.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a bladder infection (cystitis) and when it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as kidney infection pyelonephritis. Symptoms from a lower urinary tract include pain with urination, frequent urination, and feeling the need to urinate despite having an empty bladder.Symptoms of a kidney infection include fever and flank pain usually in addition to the symptoms of a lower UTI. Rarely the urine may appear bloody. In the very old and the very young, symptoms may be vague or non-specific. This session discusses more about urinary tract infection (UTI).
Neurological infections encompass a large variety of conditions that invade and affect the nervous system. Despite advances in therapy and the development of early detection techniques, many of these conditions cause severe, chronic and even life threatening problems for those affected by neurological infections. Several viral infections of the central nervous system have emerged that are not yet amenable to available treatment. The most common forms of neurological infection include meningitis which causes inflammation of the meninges, membranes which cover the brain and spinal cord. The infection may be bacterial or viral. Ventriculitis causes infection to the ventricles of the brain. Encephalitis causes infection or inflammation of the brain caused by either bacteria or a virus. Meningoencephalitis, causes simultaneous infection of the meninges and the brain. Myelitis causes infection that involves the spinal cord.
Diagnostic microbiology is the study of microbial identification. Scientists have been finding ways to harvest specific organisms since the discovery of the germ theory of disease. Using methods such as differential media or genome sequencing, physicians and scientists can observe novel functions in organisms for more effective and accurate diagnosis of organisms. Methods used in diagnostic microbiology are often used to take advantage of a particular difference in organisms attain information about what species it might be, often through a reference of previous studies. New studies provide information that other scientists can reference back to so scientists can have baseline knowledge of the organism he or she are working with. This session discusses more about diagnostic microbiology and its applications.
Whether an infectious disease agent is an emerging threat, the immune system's battle against it is usually the first line of defense it encounters. With vaccines and effective treatments often unavailable, the immune system's efforts to eradicate infectious agents or infected cells are frequently the only means to combat them. Understanding the immune system as well as the infectious agent's tactics to undermine it is of vital importance to the researcher and clinician. Instead of encylopaedic coverage of every infectious disease agent known, a set of paradigmatic infections were selected on the basis of the depth of available knowledge. This session discusses more about Immunology of Infectious Diseases.
Several antibiotics have been discovered following the discovery of penicillin in 1928 by Scottish Scientist and Nobel Laureate Alexander Fleming. Antibiotics have come a long way to cure infectious diseases. Today more than 100 different kinds of antibiotics have been discovered. The antibiotics have been found to cure various kind of infectious disease caused by microbes, but the advent of drug resistance in them also known as SUPERBUGS has pose new challenges for researchers. The advent of multiple drug resistance in microbes has posed new challenge to researchers. The scientists are now evaluating alternatives for combating infectious diseases. Focus on major alternatives to antibiotics; these promising anti-microbial include phages, bacteriocins, killing factors, antibacterial activities of non-antibiotic drugs and quorum quenching. This session focuses more on treatment and therapeutics of infectious diseases.
Emergence of infectious diseases is based on technological and environmental factors having a dramatic effect on infectious diseases. The reemergence of existing old infectious diseases which include drug-resistant forms are the major causes of worry. Infectious diseases are spreading rapidly due to demographic, ecologic conditions and population growth, increasing poverty, migration of people to urban areas are some of the reasons for the rapid spread of infectious diseases. Infectious diseases are spread through tourists, immigrants, processed food, animals that transmit diseases. Epidemiologists should work with governments of the world and draw strategies in this regard to control and prevent the spread of infectious diseases. This session discusses in detail Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases and Public Health Concerns.
Emerging Microbes & Infections (EMI) deals with emerging infectious diseases, especially with new information from developing countries where such diseases are constantly arising and being discovered regularly. It will report discoveries of emerging microbes such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and other pathogens including their previously unknown phenotypic or genotypic characteristics, as well as cutting edge information associated with microbial mechanisms of pathogenesis, immune evasion and protection, clinical presentation and outcome, drug efficacy and its resistance, epidemiology and other issues important to global health. The mission of Emerging Microbes & Infections (EMI) is to provide a new integrated forum to allow for the timely dissemination of large amount of information gathered about microbes and infections, especially ones associated with increasing biological and clinical significance. This session discusses more about emerging microbes and infections.
Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated infection. Infection control and hospital epidemiology are akin to public health practice. Anti-infective agents include antibiotics, antibacterials, antifungals, antivirals and antiprotozoals. Infection control addresses factors related to the spread of infections within the healthcare setting whether patient-to-patient, from patients to staff and from staff to patients, or among-staff, including prevention via hand hygiene/hand washing, cleaning/disinfection/sterilization, vaccination, surveillance, monitoring/investigation of demonstrated or suspected spread of infection within a particular health-care setting surveillance and outbreak investigation, and management interruption of outbreaks. This session discusses more about Infection Control & Prevention.
Clinical Microbiology deals with the study of basic and applied research relevant to therapy and diagnostics in the fields of microbiology, infectious diseases, virology, parasitology, immunology and epidemiology. And also deals with the study of the most current research related to the most current research related to the laboratory diagnosis of human and animal infections and the role of the laboratory in both the management of infectious diseases and the elucidation of the epidemiology of infections. It helps to understand the challenges that humans encounter when come in contact with microbes and how to mitigate them successfully. This session discusses more about clinical microbiology.
Microbial Genomics & Genome Sequencing deals with the knowledge of entire genetic sequences opens a whole new range of possibilities for more efficient research. The nearly complete human genome sequence is the cornerstone of genome-based biology which provides the richest intellectual resource in the history of biology. The availability of entire genome sequences marks a new age in biology as it has the potential to open innovative and efficient research avenues. Thus many laboratories are addressing important questions in functional genomics research by integrating genomic, proteomic, genetic, biochemical, and bioinformatic approaches. As such areas in functional genomics and associated genomic technology are developing very rapidly. This session discusses more about microbial genomics and genome sequencing.
Management of Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratory has become crucial as dramatic changes in infectious diseases practice are witnessed. Microbiology laboratories are the first lines of defense for detection of new antibiotic resistance, outbreaks of foodborne infection, and a possible bioterrorism event. Maintaining high-quality clinical microbiology laboratories on the site of the institution that they serve is the current best approach for managing today's problems of emerging infectious diseases and antimicrobial agent resistance by providing good patient care outcomes that actually save money. Continuing in such a direction threatens quality of laboratory results, timeliness of diagnosis, appropriateness of treatment, effective communication, reduction of health care-associated infections, advances in infectious diseases practice, and training of future practitioners. This session discusses more about management of diagnostic microbiology laboratory.
Infectious diseases are caused by living organisms called pathogens. Noninfectious diseases caused by environmental stress and damage by weather and other environmental factors. Environmental factors that cause a plant to be stressed may result in the plant's gradual decline. Decline results in the plant being more susceptible to disease organisms. There are at least 50,000 diseases of crop plants. New diseases are discovered every year. About 25% of the total world's crop production is lost annually to infectious diseases despite improved cultivars and disease control techniques. Damage from disease has not been eliminated. Disease-causing organisms pathogens multiply and mutate rapidly. They develop genetic resistance to chemical controls and have the ability to infect new hybrids. This session discusses more about infectious diseases in plants.
There are nearly more than 50 infectious diseases in animals. Agents certain viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, worms, and arthropods capable of producing disease are pathogens. The term pathogenicity refers to the ability of a parasite to enter a host and produce disease; the degree of pathogenicity that is the ability of an organism to cause infection is known as virulence. The capacity of a virulent organism to cause infection is influenced both by the characteristics of the organism and by the ability of the host to repel the invasion and to prevent injury. A pathogen may be virulent for one host but not for another. Pneumococcal bacteria have a low virulence for mice and are not found in them in nature; if introduced experimentally into a mouse, however, the bacteria overwhelm its body defenses and cause death. This session discusses more about infectious diseases in animals.
Applied microbiology is a scientific discipline that deals with the application of microorganisms and the knowledge about them. Applications include biotechnology, agriculture, medicine, food microbiology and bioremediation. Basically, applied microbiology is a subset of microbiology. Applied microbiology is the study of the way the microbial world interacts with our own and how we can utilize microbes in various processes. Applied microbiology deals with learning and implementing the microbial breakthroughs in various fields such as how to control marine shipping vessels from microbial attacks, how to improve bread and pastries preparations using microbes, how to control pathological contaminations through different routes into the human bodies etc. This session discusses more about applied microbiology.
Viral Pathogenesis is nothing but the origin of a disease through viruses, while virulence is, the ability of infectious agent to produce a disease and countermeasure is an action that counters infectious agents. A viral is a germ smaller than bacteria. Without the host cells Viruses cannot grow on their own. They live in human bodies. They cause cold, fever, influenza, diarrhea, dengue, hepatitis, rabies, measles, smallpox, polio, AIDS etc. Viruses are virulent in that they have a protective coating and hence cannot be cured with antibiotics. But vaccines help contain viral infections. Viral pathogenesis is a field where evolution is taking place at rapid pace introducing the newer methodologies in developing systems biology. Some pathogens have an array of virulence factors. We need to develop newer drugs to effectively combat infectious viral diseases. This session throws open the debate on the strategies to be adopted to develop newer drugs to counter viral pathogenesis of infectious diseases. The latest in research trends, the latest technologies, robotics and nanotechnology and its applications are the need of the hour to counter pathogenesis of viral infectious diseases and their virulent factors. All the pathologists, virologists, microbiologists, bacteriologists, parasitologists, and immunologists have to focus on these issues and challenges to combat viral infections.
Bacterial Pathogenesis is nothing but the origin of a disease through bacteria, while virulence is, the ability of infectious agent to produce a disease and countermeasure is an action that counters infectious agents. Countermeasures for gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial infections involve biofilms. Colonies of bacteria live in a biofilm made up principally of capsule material. Antimicrobials in tandem with chemical compounds are good in combating biofilms. Molecular targets of bacterial virulence proteins important for developing plant disease are still unclear. Yet bacterial surface component plays an important role in the pathogenesis of infectious disease. The ability of the organism to cause disease despite host resistance mechanisms directly depends on the degree of virulence. Of late, the number of new antibacterial drugs has plummeted while the number of antibiotic-resistant infections has risen. As a result, there is every need to develop newer drugs to counter infectious diseases. This session discusses in detail about what measures need to be taken to develop newer drugs to counter bacterial pathogenesis of infectious diseases. The latest trends in research, the latest technologies available, the application of robotics and nanotechnology in developing countermeasures to counter pathogenesis of infectious diseases demands the attention Pathologists, Microbiologists, Bacteriologists, Parasitologists, Virologists, and immunologists etc.
Infections caused in hospitals, nursing homes, healthcare units are called nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infections are also known as hospital hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Bacteria, fungus, and viruses cause HAIs, bacteria alone cause 90 percent of Nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infections are caused when immune systems are compromised during a stay in a hospital or a clinic facility. Generally, nosocomial infections are contacted from person to person, through unhygienic habits in people, and unclean surroundings, unsterilized medical instruments like respiratory machines, catheters, and other instruments. Nosocomial infections are also caused by unnecessary usage of antibiotics, which lead to bacteria becoming immune to or unaffected to irregular use of antibiotics. To avoid nosocomial infections sanitation procedures should be implemented in hospitals and clinical centers. Disinfecting the surface floors, sterilizing equipment and instruments, maintaining hygienic conditions in healthcare facilities, hospital settings, neat staff uniforms and other preventive measures need to be put in place. This session on nosocomial infections focuses on sanitation methods and examines other remedial measures to be adopted in hospital settings, clinical facilities, and various other means of keeping nosocomial infections away from the people.
Antimicrobials are known as antibiotics which destroy disease-causing microorganisms and further inhibit their growth. Antimicrobials prevent and cure infections caused by bacteria, fungi, yeast, and parasites. Advanced technologies in antimicrobials, vaccines and therapeutics face number of challenges against infectious diseases. These challenges need to be addressed in research laboratories, academically and industrially with multidisciplinary teams to develop new vaccines and therapeutics to against infectious diseases. Our existing knowledge on protein structure, microbial pathogenicity and the immune system isn’t enough. More research studies needs to be done on vaccines, therapeutics and antimicrobials and their advanced technologies. This session focuses its attention on advances made in research and development of new vaccines, therapeutics and advanced antimicrobials to fight, cure, and control many types of infectious diseases. The application of nanotechnology and robotics in developing antimicrobials, vaccines and therapeutics is the need of the hour.
Veterinary Microbiology is a subject concerning bacterial, fungal, and viral called as microbial diseases of livestock, animals such as domesticated animals, fur-bearing animals, and poultry, fish that supply food and other useful products. Veterinary microbiology deals with the health and nutritional needs of domestic animals, birds, wildlife, and zoo animals. Animal modeling and veterinary microbiology goes hand in hand in the study of animal-health commodities, monitoring of animal health on a large scale production and biomedical research. This session throws open the discussions and debates on veterinary microbiology and animal modeling, animal nutrition, animal diseases, animal breeding and genetics, cattle and livestock management, poultry production, animal models, the latest trends in study of pathogenesis, etiology, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention measures etc.